Flight instruments enable an airplane to be operated with maximum performance and enhanced safety, especially when flying long distances. Manufacturers provide the necessary flight instruments, but to use them effectively, pilots need to understand how they operate. This chapter covers the operational aspects of the pitot-static system and associated instruments, the vacuum system and associated instruments, and the magnetic compass.


There are two major parts of the pitot-static system: the impact pressure chamber and lines, and the static pressure chamber and lines. They provide the source of ambient air pressure for the operation of the altimeter, vertical speed indicator (vertical velocity indicator), and the airspeed indicator.



In this system, the impact air pressure (air striking the airplane because of its forward motion) is taken from a pitot tube, which is mounted in locations that provide minimum disturbance or turbulence caused by the motion of the airplane through the air. The static pressure (pressure of the still air) is usually taken from the static line attached to a vent or vents mounted flush with the side of the fuselage. This compensates for any possible variation in static pressure due to erratic changes in airplane attitude.

The openings of both the pitot tube and the static vent must be checked during the preflight inspection to assure that they are free from obstructions. Blocked or partially blocked openings should be cleaned by a certificated mechanic. Blowing into these openings is not recommended because this could damage the instruments.

As the airplane moves through the air, the impact pressure on the open pitot tube affects the pressure in the pitot chamber. Any change of pressure in the pitot chamber is transmitted through a line connected to the airspeed indicator, which utilizes impact pressure for its operation.


The static chamber is vented through small holes to the free undisturbed air, and as the atmospheric pressure increases or decreases, the pressure in the static chamber changes accordingly. Again, this pressure change is transmitted through lines to the instruments which utilize static pressure.

An alternate source for static pressure is provided in some airplanes in the event the static ports become blocked. This source usually is vented to the pressure inside the cockpit. Because of the venturi effect of the flow of air over the cockpit, this alternate static pressure is usually lower than the pressure provided by the normal static air source. When the alternate static source is used, the following differences in the instrument indications usually occur: the altimeter will indicate higher than the actual altitude, the airspeed will indicate greater than the actual airspeed, and the vertical speed will indicate a climb while in level flight. Consult the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot’s Operating Handbook (AFM/POH) to determine the amount of error.

If the airplane is not equipped with an alternate static source, breaking the glass seal of the vertical speed indicator allows ambient air pressure to enter the static system. This makes the VSI unusable.



The altimeter measures the height of the airplane above a given pressure level. Since it is the only instrument that gives altitude information, the altimeter is one of the most vital instruments in the airplane. To use the altimeter effectively, its operation and how atmospheric pressure and temperature affect it must be thoroughly understood.

A stack of sealed aneroid (Aneroid—A sealed flexible container, which expands or contracts in relation to the surrounding air pressure. It is used in an altimeter or a barometer to measure the pressure of the air.) Wafers comprise the main component of the altimeter. These wafers expand and contract with changes in atmospheric pressure from the static source. The mechanical linkage translates these changes into pointer movements on the indicator.


The pressure altimeter is an aneroid barometer that measures the pressure of the atmosphere at the level where the altimeter is located, and presents an altitude indication in feet. The altimeter uses static pressure as its source of operation. Air is denser at sea level than aloft, so as altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. This difference in pressure at various levels causes the altimeter to indicate changes in altitude.


The presentation of altitude varies considerably between different types of altimeters. Some have one pointer while others have two or more. Only the multi pointer type will be discussed in this handbook. The dial of a typical altimeter is graduated with numerals arranged clockwise from 0 to 9. Movement of the aneroid element is transmitted through gears to the three hands that indicate altitude. The shortest hand indicates altitude in tens of thousands of feet; the intermediate hand in thousands of feet; and the longest hand in hundreds of feet.

This indicated altitude is correct, however, only when the sea level barometric pressure is standard (29.92 inches of mercury), the sea level free air temperature is standard (+15°C or 59°F), and the pressure and temperature decrease at a standard rate with an increase in altitude. Adjustments for nonstandard conditions are accomplished by setting the corrected pressure into a barometric scale located on the face of the altimeter. Only after the altimeter is set does it indicate the correct altitude.


If no means were provided for adjusting altimeters to nonstandard pressure, flight could be hazardous. For example, if flying from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area without adjusting the altimeter, the actual altitude of the airplane would be LOWER than the indicated altitude. An old saying, “HIGH TO LOW, LOOK OUT BELOW” is a way of remembering which condition is dangerous. When flying from a low-pressure area to a high-pressure area without adjusting the altimeter, the actual altitude of the airplane is HIGHER than the indicated altitude. 


Figure shows how variations in air temperature also affect the altimeter. On a warm day, a given mass of air expands to a larger volume than on a cold day, raising the pressure levels. For example, the pressure level where the altimeter indicates 5,000 feet is HIGHER on a warm day than under standard conditions. On a cold day, the reverse is true, and the pressure level where the altimeter indicates 5,000 feet is LOWER.  The adjustment to compensate for nonstandard pressure does not compensate for nonstandard temperature.

If terrain or obstacle clearance is a factor in selecting a cruising altitude, particularly at higher altitudes, remember to anticipate that a colder-than-standard temperature places the airplane LOWER than the altimeter indicates. Therefore, it is necessary to use a higher indicated altitude to provide adequate terrain clearance. Modify the memory aid to “HIGH TO LOW OR HOT TO COLD, LOOK OUT BELOW.”


There are two means by which the altimeter pointers can be moved. The first is a change in air pressure, while the other is an adjustment to the barometric scale. When the airplane climbs or descends, changing pressure within the altimeter case expands or contracts the aneroid barometer. This movement is transmitted through mechanical linkage to rotate the pointers. A decrease in pressure causes the altimeter to indicate an increase in altitude, and an increase in pressure causes the altimeter to indicate a decrease in altitude. Accordingly, if the airplane is flown from a pressure level of 28.75 a pressure level of 29.75 in. Hg., the altimeter would show a decrease of approximately 1,000 feet in altitude.

The other method of moving the pointers does not rely on changing air pressure, but the mechanical construction of the altimeter. Do not be confused by the fact that as the barometric pressure scale is moved, the indicator needles move in the same direction, which is opposite to the reaction the pointers have when air pressure changes. To illustrate this point, suppose the pilot lands at an airport with an elevation of 1,000 feet and the altimeter is correctly set to the current sea level pressure of 30.00 in. Hg. While the airplane is parked on the ramp, the pressure decreases to 29.50. The altimeter senses this as a climb and now indicates 1,500 feet.

When returning to the airplane, if the setting in the altimeter window is decreased to the current sea level pressure of 29.50, the indication will be reduced back down to 1,000 feet. Knowing the airplane’s altitude is vitally important to a pilot. The pilot must be sure that the airplane is flying high enough to clear the highest terrain or obstruction along the intended route. It is especially important to have accurate altitude information when visibility is restricted. To clear obstructions, the pilot must constantly be aware of the altitude of the airplane and the elevation of the surrounding terrain. To reduce the possibility of a midair collision, it is essential to maintain altitude in accordance with air traffic rules.


Altitude is vertical distance above some point or level used as a reference. There are as many kinds of altitude as there are reference levels from which altitude is measured, and each may be used for specific reasons. Pilots are mainly concerned with five types of altitudes:

Indicated Altitude—That altitude read directly from the altimeter (uncorrected) when it is set to the current altimeter setting.

True Altitude— The vertical distance of the airplane above sea level—the actual altitude. It is often expressed as feet above mean sea level (MSL). Airport, terrain, and obstacle elevations on aeronautical charts are true altitudes.

Absolute Altitude—the vertical distance of an airplane above the terrain, or above ground level (AGL).

Pressure Altitude— The altitude indicated when the altimeter setting window (barometric scale) is adjusted to 29.92. This is the altitude above the standard datum plane, which is a theoretical plane where air pressure. (Corrected to 15°C) equals 29.92 in. Hg. Pressure altitude is used to compute density altitude, true altitude, true airspeed, and other performance data.

Density Altitude—This altitude is pressure altitude corrected for variations from standard temperature. When conditions are standard, pressure altitude and density altitude are the same. If the temperature is above standard, the density altitude is higher than pressure altitude. If the temperature is below standard, the density altitude is lower than pressure altitude. This is an important altitude because it is directly related to the airplane’s performance.

As an example, consider an airport with a field elevation of 5,048 feet MSL where the standard temperature is 5°C. Under these conditions, pressure altitude and density altitude are the same—5,048 feet. If the temperature changes to 30°C, the density altitude increases to 7,855 feet. This means an airplane would perform on takeoff as though the field elevation were 7,855 feet at standard temperature. Conversely, a temperature of -25°C would result in a density altitude of 1,232 feet. An airplane would have much better performance under these conditions.

Instrument Check

To determine the condition of an altimeter, set the barometric scale to the altimeter setting transmitted by the local automated flight service station (AFSS) or any other reliable source. The altimeter pointers should indicate the surveyed elevation of the airport. If the indication is off more than 75 feet from the surveyed elevation, the instrument should be referred to a certificated instrument repair station for recalibration.



The airspeed indicator is a sensitive, differential pressure gauge which measures and shows promptly the difference between pitot or impact pressure, and static pressure, the undisturbed atmospheric pressure at level flight. These two pressures will be equal when the airplane is parked on the ground in calm air. When the airplane moves through the air, the pressure on the pitot line becomes greater than the pressure in the static lines. This difference in pressure is registered by the airspeed pointer on the face of the instrument, which is calibrated in miles per hour, knots, or both.


Pilots should understand the following speeds:

Indicated Airspeed (IAS)—The direct instrument reading obtained from the airspeed indicator, uncorrected for variations in atmospheric density, installation error, or instrument error. Manufacturers use this airspeed as the basis for determining airplane performance. Takeoff, landing, and stall speeds listed in the AFM or POH are indicated airspeeds and do not normally vary with altitude or temperature.

Calibrated Airspeed (CAS)—Indicated airspeed corrected for installation error and instrument error. Although manufacturers attempt to keep airspeed errors to a minimum, it is not possible to eliminate all errors throughout the airspeed operating range. At certain airspeeds and with certain flap settings, the installation and instrument errors may total several knots. This error is generally greatest at low airspeeds.

In the cruising and higher airspeed ranges, indicated airspeed and calibrated airspeed are approximately the same. Refer to the airspeed calibration chart to correct for possible airspeed errors.

True Airspeed (TAS)—Calibrated airspeed corrected for altitude and nonstandard temperature. Because air density decreases with an increase in altitude, an airplane has to be flown faster at higher altitudes to cause the same pressure difference between pitot impact pressure and static pressure. Therefore, for a given calibrated airspeed, true airspeed increases as altitude increases; or for a given true airspeed, calibrated airspeed decreases as altitude increases.

A pilot can find true airspeed by two methods. The most accurate method is to use a flight computer. With this method, the calibrated airspeed is corrected for temperature and pressure variation by using the airspeed correction scale on the computer. Extremely accurate electronic flight computers are also available. Just enter the CAS, pressure altitude, and temperature and the computer calculates the true airspeed. A second method, which is a “rule of thumb,” will provide the approximate true airspeed. Simply add 2 percent to the calibrated airspeed for each 1,000 feet of altitude.

Groundspeed (GS)— the actual speed of the airplane over the ground. It is true airspeed adjusted for wind. Groundspeed decreases with a headwind, and increases with a tailwind.


Airplanes weighing 12,500 pounds or less, manufactured after 1945, and certificated by the FAA, are required to have airspeed indicators marked in accordance with a standard color-coded marking.


• White arc—This arc is commonly referred to as the flap operating range since its lower limit represents the full flap stall speed and its upper limit provides the maximum flap speed. Approaches and landings are usually flown at speeds within the white arc.

• Lower limit of white arc (VS0)— The stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration. In small airplanes, this is the power-off stall speed at the maximum landing weight in the landing configuration (gear and flaps down).

• Upper limit of the white arc (VFE)—The maximum speed with the flaps extended.

• Green arc—This is the normal operating range of the airplane. Most flying occurs within this range.

• Lower limit of green arc (VS1)—The stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in a specified configuration. For most airplanes, this is the power-off stall speed at the maximum takeoff weight in the clean configuration (gear up, if retractable, and flaps up).

• Upper limit of green arc (VNO)—The maximum structural cruising speed. Do not exceed this speed except in smooth air.

• Yellow arc—Caution range. Fly within this range only in smooth air, and then, only with caution.

• Red line (VNE)—Never-exceed speed. Operating above this speed is prohibited since it may result in damage or structural failure.


Some important airspeed limitations are not marked on the face of the airspeed indicator, but are found on placards and in the AFM or POH. These airspeeds include:

• Design maneuvering speed (VA)—This is the “rough air” speed and the maximum speed for abrupt maneuvers. If during flight, rough air or severe turbulence is encountered, reduce the airspeed to maneuvering speed or less to minimize stress on the airplane structure. It is important to consider weight when referencing this speed. For example, VA may be 100 knots when an airplane is heavily loaded, but only 90 knots when the load is light.

• Landing gear operating speed (VLO)—The maximum speed for extending or retracting the landing gear if using an airplane equipped with retractable landing gear.

• Landing gear extended speed (VLE)—The maximum speed at which an airplane can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.

• Best angle-of-climb speed (VX)—The airspeed at which an airplane gains the greatest amount of altitude in a given distance. It is used during a short-field takeoff to clear an obstacle.

• Best rate-of-climb speed (VY)— This airspeed provides the most altitude gain in a given period of time.

• Minimum control speed (VMC)— This is the minimum flight speed at which a light, twin-engine airplane can be satisfactorily controlled when an engine suddenly becomes inoperative and the remaining engine is at takeoff power.

• Best rate of climb with one engine inoperative (VYSE)— This airspeed provides the most altitude gain in a given period of time in a light, twin-engine airplane following an engine failure.

Instrument Check—Prior to takeoff, the airspeed indicator should read zero. However, if there is a strong wind blowing directly into the pitot tube, the airspeed indicator may read higher than zero. When beginning the takeoff, make sure the airspeed is increasing at an appropriate rate.

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

The VSI, which is sometimes called a vertical velocity indicator (VVI), indicates whether the aircraft is climbing, descending, or in level flight. The rate of climb or descent is indicated in feet per minute (fpm). If properly calibrated, the VSI indicates zero in level flight. [Figure 7-5]


Figure 7-5. Vertical speed indicator (VSI).

Although the VSI operates solely from static pressure, it is a differential pressure instrument. It contains a diaphragm with connecting linkage and gearing to the indicator pointer inside an airtight case. The inside of the diaphragm is connected directly to the static line of the pitot-static system. The area outside the diaphragm, which is inside the instrument case, is also connected to the static line, but through a restricted orifice (calibrated leak).

Both the diaphragm and the case receive air from the static line at existing atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm receives unrestricted air while the case receives the static pressure via the metered leak. When the aircraft is on the ground or in level flight, the pressures inside the diaphragm and the instrument case are equal and the pointer is at the zero indication. When the aircraft climbs or descends, the pressure inside the diaphragm changes immediately, but due to the metering action of the restricted passage, the case pressure remains higher or lower for a short time, causing the diaphragm to contract or expand. This causes a pressure differential that is indicated on the instrument needle as a climb or descent.

When the pressure differential stabilizes at a definite ratio, the needle indicates the rate of altitude change.

The VSI displays two different types of information:

  • Trend information shows an immediate indication of an increase or decrease in the aircraft’s rate of climb or descent.
  • Rate information shows a stabilized rate of change in altitude.

The trend information is the direction of movement of the VSI needle. For example, if an aircraft is maintaining level flight and the pilot pulls back on the control yoke causing the nose of the aircraft to pitch up, the VSI needle moves upward to indicate a climb. If the pitch attitude is held constant, the needle stabilizes after a short period (6–9 seconds) and indicates the rate of climb in hundreds of fpm. The time period from the initial change in the rate of climb, until the VSI displays an accurate indication of the new rate, is called the lag. Rough control technique and turbulence can extend the lag period and cause erratic and unstable rate indications. Some aircraft are equipped with an instantaneous vertical speed indicator (IVSI), which incorporates accelerometers to compensate for the lag in the typical VSI. [Figure 7-6]


Figure 7-6. An IVSI incorporates accelerometers to help the instrument immediately indicate changes in vertical speed.



Several flight instruments utilize the properties of a gyroscope for their operation. The most common instruments containing gyroscopes are the turn coordinator, heading indicator, and the attitude indicator. To understand how these instruments operate requires knowledge of the instrument power systems, gyroscopic principles, and the operating principles of each instrument.


Any spinning object exhibits gyroscopic properties. A wheel or rotor designed and mounted to utilize these properties is called a gyroscope. Two important design characteristics of an instrument gyro are great weight for its size, or high density, and rotation at high speed with low friction bearings.

There are two general types of mountings; the type used depends upon which property of the gyro is utilized. A freely or universally mounted gyroscope is free to rotate in any direction about its center of gravity. Such a wheel is said to have three planes of freedom. The wheel or rotor is free to rotate in any plane in relation to the base and is so balanced that with the gyro wheel at rest, it will remain in the position in which it is placed. Restricted or semi rigidly mounted gyroscopes are those mounted so that one of the planes of freedom is held fixed in relation to the base.

There are two fundamental properties of gyroscopic action—rigidity in space and precession.


Rigidity in space refers to the principle that a gyroscope remains in a fixed position in the plane in which it is spinning. By mounting this wheel, or gyroscope, on a set of gimbal rings(Gimbal Ring—A type of support that allows an object, such as a gyroscope, to remain in an upright condition when its base is tilted), the gyro is able to rotate freely in any direction. Thus, if the gimbal rings are tilted, twisted, or otherwise moved, the gyro remains in the plane in which it was originally spinning.



Precession is the tilting or turning of a gyro in response to a deflective force. The reaction to this force does not occur at the point where it was applied; rather, it occurs at a point that is 90° later in the direction of rotation. This principle allows the gyro to determine a rate of turn by sensing the amount of pressure created by a change in direction. The rate at which the gyro processes is inversely proportional to the speed of the rotor and proportional to the deflective force. Precession can also create some minor errors in some instruments.



In some airplanes, all the gyros are vacuum, pressure, or electrically operated; in others, vacuum or pressure systems provide the power for the heading and attitude indicators, while the electrical system provides the power for the turn coordinator. Most airplanes have at least two sources of power to ensure at least one source of bank information if one power source fails. The vacuum or pressure system spins the gyro by drawing a stream of air against the rotor vanes to spin the rotor at high speed, much like the operation of a waterwheel or turbine. The amount of vacuum or pressure required for instrument operation varies, but is usually between 4.5 and 5.5 in. Hg.

One source of vacuum for the gyros is a vane-type engine-driven pump that is mounted on the accessory case of the engine. Pump capacity varies in different airplanes, depending on the number of gyros. A typical vacuum system consists of an engine-driven vacuum pump, relief valve, air filter, gauge, and tubing necessary to complete the connections. The gauge is mounted in the airplane’s instrument panel and indicates the amount of pressure in the system (vacuum is measured in inches of mercury less than ambient pressure).


As shown in figure, air is drawn into the vacuum system by the engine-driven vacuum pump. It first goes through a filter, which prevents foreign matter from entering the vacuum or pressure system. The air then moves through the attitude and heading indicators, where it causes the gyros to spin. A relief valve prevents the vacuum pressure, or suction, from exceeding prescribed limits. After that, the air is expelled overboard or used in other systems, such as for inflating pneumatic deicing boots. It is important to monitor vacuum pressure during flight, because the attitude and heading indicators may not provide reliable information when suction pressure is low. The vacuum, or suction, gauge generally is marked to indicate the normal range. Some airplanes are equipped with a warning light that illuminates when the vacuum pressure drops below the acceptable level.


Engine instruments that indicate oil pressure, oil temperature, engine speed, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel flow are common to both turbine and reciprocating engines. However, there are some instruments that are unique to turbine engines. These instruments provide indications of engine pressure ratio, turbine discharge pressure, and torque. In addition, most gas turbine engines have multiple temperature-sensing instruments, called thermo couples, that provide pilots with temperature readings in and around the turbine section.
An engine pressure ratio (EPR) gauge is used to indicate the power output of a turbojet/turbofan engine. EPR is the ratio of turbine discharge to compressor inlet pressure. Pressure measurements are recorded by probes installed in the engine inlet and at the exhaust. Once collected, the data is sent to a differential pressure transducer, which is indicated on a cockpit EPR gauge.
EPR system design automatically compensates for the effects of airspeed and altitude. However, changes in ambient temperature do require a correction to be applied to EPR indications to provide accurate engine power settings.


A limiting factor in a gas turbine engine is the temperature of the turbine section. The temperature of a turbine section must be monitored closely to prevent overheating the turbine blades and other exhaust section components. One common way of monitoring the temperature of a turbine section is with an exhaust gas temperature (EGT) gauge. EGT is an engine operating limit used to monitor overall engine operating conditions.
Variations of EGT systems bear different names based on the location of the temperature sensors. Common turbine temperature sensing gauges include the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) gauge, turbine outlet temperature (TOT) gauge, inter stage turbine temperature (ITT) gauge, and turbine gas temperature (TGT) gauge.
Turboprop/turbo shaft engine power output is measured by the torque meter. Torque is a twisting force applied to a shaft. The torque meter measures power applied to the shaft. Turboprop and turbo shaft engines are designed to produce torque for driving a propeller.
Torque meters are calibrated in percentage units, foot-pounds, or pounds per square inch.

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

A limiting factor in a gas turbine engine is the temperature of the turbine section. The temperature of a turbine section must be monitored closely to prevent overheating the turbine blades and other exhaust section components. One common way of monitoring the temperature of a turbine section is with an EGT gauge. EGT is an engine operating limit used to monitor overall engine operating conditions.
Variations of EGT systems bear different names based on the location of the temperature sensors. Common turbine temperature sensing gauges include the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) gauge, turbine outlet temperature (TOT) gauge, inter-stage turbine temperature (ITT) gauge, and turbine gas temperature (TGT) gauge.


N1 represents the rotational speed of the low pressure compressor and is presented on the indicator as a percentage of design r.p.m. After start the speed of the low pressure compressor is governed by the N1 turbine wheel. The N1 turbine wheel is connected to the low pressure compressor through a concentric shaft.
N2 represents the rotational speed of the high pressure compressor and is presented on the indicator as a percentage of design r.p.m. The high pressure compressor is governed by the N2 turbine wheel. The N2 turbine wheel is connected to the high pressure compressor through a concentric shaft.

Fuel Gauges

The fuel quantity gauges indicate the amount of fuel measured by a sensing unit in each fuel tank and is displayed in gallons or pounds. Aircraft certification rules require accuracy in fuel gauges only when they read “empty.” Any reading other than “empty” should be verified. Do not depend solely on the accuracy of the fuel quantity gauges. Always visually check the fuel level in each tank during the preflight inspection, and then compare it with the corresponding fuel quantity indication.
If a fuel pump is installed in the fuel system, a fuel pressure gauge is also included. This gauge indicates the pressure in the fuel lines. The normal operating pressure can be found in the AFM/POH or on the gauge by color coding.


A propeller with fixed blade angles is a fixed-pitch propeller. The pitch of this propeller is set by the manufacturer and cannot be changed. Since a fixed-pitch propeller achieves the best efficiency only at a given combination of airspeed and rpm, the pitch setting is ideal for neither cruise nor climb. Thus, the aircraft suffers a bit in each performance category. The fixed-pitch propeller is used when low weight, simplicity, and low cost are needed.
There are two types of fixed-pitch propellers: climb and cruise. Whether the airplane has a climb or cruise propeller installed depends upon its intended use. The climb propeller has a lower pitch, therefore less drag. Less drag results in higher rpm and more horsepower capability, this increases performance during takeoffs and climbs, but decreases performance during cruising flight.

The cruise propeller has a higher pitch, therefore more drag. More drag results in lower rpm and less horsepower capability, which decreases performance during takeoffs and climbs, but increases efficiency during cruising flight.

The propeller is usually mounted on a shaft, which may be an extension of the engine crankshaft. In this case, the rpm of the propeller would be the same as the crankshaft rpm. On some engines, the propeller is mounted on a shaft geared to the engine crankshaft. In this type, the rpm of the propeller is different than that of the engine.


In a fixed-pitch propeller, the tachometer is the indicator of engine power. [Figure 6-8] A tachometer is calibrated in hundreds of rpm and gives a direct indication of the engine and propeller rpm. The instrument is color coded, with a green arc denoting the maximum continuous operating rpm. Some tachometers have additional markings to reflect engine and/or propeller limitations. The manufacturer’s recommendations should be used as a reference to clarify any misunderstanding of tachometer markings.

The rpm is regulated by the throttle, which controls the fuel/air flow to the engine. At a given altitude, the higher the tachometer reading, the higher the power output of the engine.
When operating altitude increases, the tachometer may not show correct power output of the engine. For example, 2,300 rpm at 5,000 feet produces less horsepower than 2,300 rpm at sea level because power output depends on air density. Air density decreases as altitude increases and a decrease in air density (higher density altitude) decreases the power output of the engine. As altitude changes, the position of the throttle must be changed to maintain the same rpm. As altitude is increased, the throttle must be opened further to indicate the same rpm as at a lower altitude.

Outside Air Temperature (OAT) Gauge

The outside air temperature (OAT) gauge is a simple and effective device mounted so that the sensing element is exposed to the outside air. The sensing element consists of a bimetallic-type thermometer in which two dissimilar materials are welded together in a single strip and twisted into a helix. One end is anchored into protective tube and the other end is affixed to the pointer, which reads against the calibration on a circular face. OAT gauges are calibrated in degrees °C, °F, or both. An accurate air temperature provides the pilot with useful information about temperature lapse rate with altitude change.  [Figure 7-38]


Figure 7-38. Outside air temperature (OAT) gauge.


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