AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

 

Hydraulic system

The word hydraulics is based on the Greek word for water, and originally meant the study of water at rest and in motion. Today the meaning has been expanded to include the physical behavior of all liquids, including hydraulic fluid. With the use of incompressible phenomenon of liquid we can easily make a hydraulic system.

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As per Pascal’s law “Pressure applied to any part of a confined liquid is transmitted with undiminished intensity to every other parts” .The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. The fluid is almost always an oil of some sort. The force is almost always multiplied in the process.

In this drawing, two pistons (red) fit into two glass cylinders filled with oil (light blue) and connected to one another with an oil-filled pipe. If you apply a downward force to one piston (the left one in this drawing), then the force is transmitted to the second piston through the oil in the pipe. Since oil is in-compressible, the efficiency is very good — almost all of the applied force appears at the second piston. The great thing about hydraulic systems is that the pipe connecting the two cylinders can be any length and shape, allowing it to snake through all sorts of things separating the two pistons. The pipe can also fork, so that one master cylinder can drive more than one slave cylinder if desired.

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There are multiple applications for hydraulic use in airplanes, depending on the complexity of the airplane. For example, hydraulics is often used on small airplanes to operate wheel brakes, retractable landing gear, and some constant speed propellers. On large airplanes, hydraulics is used for flight control surfaces, wing flaps, spoilers, and other systems.

A basic hydraulic system consists of a reservoir, pump (either hand, electric, or engine driven), a filter to keep the fluid clean, selector valve to control the direction of flow, relief valve to relieve excess pressure, and an actuator. The hydraulic fluid is pumped through the system to an actuator or servo.

Servos can be either single-acting or double-acting servos based on the needs of the system. This means that the fluid can be applied to one or both sides of the servo, depending on the servo type, and therefore provides power in one direction with a single-acting servo. A servo is a cylinder with a piston inside that turns fluid power into work and creates the power needed to move an aircraft system or flight control. The selector valve allows the fluid direction to be controlled. This is necessary for operations like the extension and retraction of landing gear where the fluid must work in two different directions. The relief valve provides an outlet for the system in the event of excessive fluid pressure in the system. Each system incorporates different components to meet the individual needs of different aircraft.

A mineral-based fluid is the most widely used type for small airplanes. This type of hydraulic fluid, which is a kerosene-like petroleum product, has good lubricating Properties, as well as additives to inhibit foaming and prevent the formation of corrosion. It is quite stable chemically, has very little viscosity change with temperature, and is dyed for identification. Since several types of hydraulic fluids are commonly used, make sure your airplane is serviced with the type specified by the manufacturer.

The three types of gas-charged accumulators you’ll encounter on hydraulic systems are bladder, piston and diaphragm. Accumulators are used to store the fluid under given pressure.

The most popular of these is the bladder type. Bladder accumulators feature fast response (less than 25 milliseconds), a maximum gas compression ratio of around 4:1 and a maximum flow rate of 15 liters (4 gallons) per second, although “high-flow” versions up to 38 liters (10 gallons) per second are available. Bladder accumulators also have good dirt tolerance; they are mostly unaffected by particle contamination in the hydraulic fluid.

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Piston accumulators, on the other hand, can handle much higher gas compression ratios (up to 10:1) and flow rates as high as 215 liters (57 gallons) per second. Unlike bladder accumulators, whose preferred mounting position is vertical to prevent the possibility of fluid getting trapped between the bladder and the shell, piston accumulators can be mounted in any position.

But, piston accumulators also require a higher level of fluid cleanliness than bladder units, have slower response times (greater than 25 milliseconds) – especially at lower pressures – and exhibit hysteresis. This is explained by the static friction of the piston seal which has to be overcome, and the necessary acceleration and deceleration of the piston mass.

Diaphragm accumulators have most of the advantages of bladder-type units but can handle gas compression ratios up to 8:1. They are limited to smaller volumes, and their performance can sometimes be affected by gas permeation across the diaphragm.

Maintenance Considerations

When charging the gas end of a bladder or diaphragm accumulator, the nitrogen gas should always be admitted very slowly. If the high-pressure nitrogen is allowed to expand rapidly as it enters the bladder, it can chill the bladder’s polymeric material to the point where immediate brittle failure occurs. Rapid pre-charging can also force the bladder underneath the poppet at the oil-end, causing it to be cut. If pre-charge pressure is too high or minimum system pressure is reduced without a corresponding reduction in pre-charge pressure, the operation of the accumulator will be affected and damage may also result. Excessive pre-charge of a bladder accumulator can drive the bladder into the poppet assembly during discharge, causing damage to the poppet assembly and/or the bladder. This is a common cause of bladder failure.

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Low or no pre-charge also can have drastic consequences for bladder accumulators. It can result in the bladder being crushed into the top of the shell by system pressure. This can cause the bladder to extrude into or be punctured by the gas valve. In this scenario, only one such cycle is required to destroy the bladder.

Similarly, excessively high or low pre-charge of a piston accumulator can cause the piston to bottom out at the end of its stroke, resulting in damage to the piston and its seal. The good news is that, if this happens, an audible warning will result. Even though piston accumulators can be damaged by improper charging, they are much more tolerant of it than bladder accumulators.

Artificial feel devices

With purely mechanical flight control systems, the aerodynamic forces on the control surfaces are transmitted through the mechanisms and are felt directly by the pilot, allowing tactile feedback of airspeed. With hydro mechanical flight control systems, however, the load on the surfaces cannot be felt and there is a risk of overstressing the aircraft through excessive control surface movement. To overcome this problem, artificial feel systems can be used.

For example, for the controls of the RAF’s Avro Vulcan jet bomber and the RCAF’s Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow supersonic interceptor (both 1950s-era designs), the required force feedback was achieved by a spring device.The fulcrum of this device was moved in proportion to the square of the air speed (for the elevators) to give increased resistance at higher speeds. For the controls of the American Vought F-8 Crusader and the LTV A-7 Corsair II warplanes, a ‘bob-weight’ was used in the pitch axis of the control stick, giving force feedback that was proportional to the airplane’s normal acceleration.

Stick shaker

A stick shaker is a device (available in some hydraulic aircraft) that is fitted into the control column, which shakes the control column when the aircraft is about to stall. Also in some aircraft like the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 there is/was a back-up electrical power supply that the pilot can turn on to re-activates the stick shaker in case the hydraulic connection to the stick shaker is lost.

Types of Hydraulic Fluids:

       When adding fluid to the system, use the specified type of fluid in the manufactures manual. There are 3 types of fluids are currently being used in civil aircraft

ü Vegetable base hydraulic fluid

ü Mineral base hydraulic fluid

ü Phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid

Advantages:

1. Ease of installation

2. Simple inspection needed & requires minimum maintenance

Air in the System:

It is important that a hydraulic system contains no air bubbles. You may have heard about the need to “bleed the air out of the brake lines” of your car. If there is an air bubble in the system, then the force applied to the first piston gets used compressing the air in the bubble rather than moving the second piston, which has a big effect on the efficiency of the system.

Control Surface deflection using hydraulic system

· The piston rod can only produce Reciprocating motion.

· Reciprocating motion can be converted to Radial or oblique motion by the use of mechanical linkages.

Pneumatic system

Pneumatic is a branch of technology, which deals with the study and application of pressurized gas to effect mechanical motion.

Pneumatic systems are extensively used in industry, where factories are commonly plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. This is because a centrally located and electrically powered compressor that powers cylinders and other pneumatic devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a cheaper, safer, more flexible, and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors and actuators.

Pneumatic also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.

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Compressor:

Pump that compresses air, raising air pressure to above ambient pressure for use in pneumatic systems.

Check valve:

One-way valve – allows pressurized air to enter the pneumatic system, but prevents backflow of air toward the Compressor when Compressor is stopped (prevent loss of pressure.

Accumulator

· Stores compressed air,

· Prevents surges in pressure

· Prevents constant Compressor operation (“duty cycles” of Compressor)

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Directional Valve: (Selector valve)

ü Controls pressurized air flow from Accumulator (source to user equipment via selected port

ü Some valves are one way – shut tight

ü Some valves are two way, allowing free exhaust from the port not selected

ü valves can be actuated manually or electrically.

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Actuator

ü Converts energy stored in compressed air into mechanical motion

ü Example is a linear piston (piston limited to moving in two opposing directions)

ü Other examples are alternate tools including: rotary actuators, air tools, expanding bladders, etc

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Pneumatic uses in Aircraft

  • Powers engine Suction System for Heading indicators and Attitude indicators.
  • Actuates Landing Gear (some aircraft)
  • Emergency Brakes (some aircraft)
  • Cabin Pressure (for pressurized aircraft)

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Brakes

Airplane brakes are located on the main wheels and are applied by either a hand control or by foot pedals (toe or heel). Foot pedals operate independently and allow for differential braking. During ground operations, differential braking can supplement nosewheel/tailwheel steering.

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Aircraft Landing Gear

The landing gear forms the principal support of an aircraft on the surface. The most common type of landing gear consists of wheels, but aircraft can also be equipped with floats for water operations or skis for landing on snow. [Figure 6-37]

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The landing gear on small aircraft consists of three wheels: two main wheels (one located on each side of the fuselage) and a third wheel positioned either at the front or rear of the airplane. Landing gear employing a rear-mounted wheel is called conventional landing gear. Airplanes with conventional landing gear are often referred to as tailwheel airplanes. When the third wheel is located on the nose, it is called a nosewheel, and the design is referred to as a tricycle gear. A steerable nosewheel or tailwheel permits the airplane to be controlled throughout all operations while on the ground.

Tricycle Landing Gear Airplanes

A tricycle gear airplane has three advantages:

  1. It allows more forceful application of the brakes during landings at high speeds without causing the aircraft to nose over.
  2. It permits better forward visibility for the pilot during takeoff, landing, and taxiing.
  3. It tends to prevent ground looping (swerving) by providing more directional stability during ground operation since the aircraft’s center of gravity (CG) is forward of the main wheels. The forward CG keeps the airplane moving forward in a straight line rather than ground looping.

Nosewheels are either steerable or castering. Steerable nosewheels are linked to the rudders by cables or rods, while castering nosewheels are free to swivel. In both cases, the aircraft is steered using the rudder pedals. Aircraft with a castering nosewheel may require the pilot to combine the use of the rudder pedals with independent use of the brakes.

Tailwheel Landing Gear Airplanes

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Tailwheel landing gear aircraft have two main wheels attached to the airframe ahead of its CG that support most of the weight of the structure. A tailwheel at the very back of the fuselage provides a third point of support. This arrangement allows adequate ground clearance for a larger propeller and is more desirable for operations on unimproved fields. [Figure 6-38]

With the CG located behind the main gear, directional control of this type aircraft becomes more difficult while on the ground. This is the main disadvantage of the tailwheel landing gear. For example, if the pilot allows the aircraft to swerve while rolling on the ground at a low speed, he or she may not have sufficient rudder control and the CG will attempt to get ahead of the main gear which may cause the airplane to ground loop.
Lack of good forward visibility when the tailwheel is on or near the ground is a second disadvantage of tailwheel landing gear aircraft. These inherent problems mean specific training is required in tailwheel aircraft.

Fixed and Retractable Landing Gear

Landing gear can also be classified as either fixed or retractable. A fixed gear always remains extended and has the advantage of simplicity combined with low maintenance. A retractable gear is designed to streamline the airplane by allowing the landing gear to be stowed inside the structure during cruising flight. [Figure 6-39]

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