ENGINE SYSTEMS

Fuel systems

The fuel system is designed to provide an uninterrupted flow of clean fuel from the fuel tanks to the engine. The fuel must be available to the engine under all conditions of engine power, altitude, attitude, and during all approved flight maneuvers. Two common classifications apply to fuel systems in small airplanes – gravity-feed and fuel-pump systems.

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The gravity-feed system utilizes the force of gravity to transfer the fuel from the tanks to the engine – for example, on high-wing airplanes where the fuel tanks are installed in the wings. This places the fuel tanks above the carburetor, and the fuel is gravity fed through the system and into the carburetor. If the design of the airplane is such that gravity cannot be used to transfer fuel, fuel pumps are installed – for example, on low-wing airplanes where the fuel tanks in the wings are located below the carburetor.

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Figure 15: Gravity-feed and fuel-pump systems.

Fuel pumps

Airplanes with fuel pump systems have two fuel pumps. The main pump system is engine driven, and an electrically driven auxiliary pump is provided for use in engine starting and in the event the engine pump fails. The auxiliary pump, also known as a boost pump, provides added reliability to the fuel system. The electrically driven auxiliary pump is controlled by a switch in the cockpit.

Fuel primer

Both gravity fed and pump systems may incorporate a fuel primer into the system. The primer is used to draw fuel from the tanks to vaporize it directly into the cylinders prior to starting the engine. This is particularly helpful during cold weather, when engines are hard to start because there is not enough heat available to vaporize the fuel in the carburetor. It is important to lock the primer in place when it is not in use. If the knob is free to move, it may vibrate out during flight and can cause an excessively rich mixture. To avoid overpriming, read the priming instructions for your airplane.

Fuel tanks

The fuel tanks, normally located inside the wings of an airplane, have a filler opening on top of the wing through which they can be filled. A filler cap covers this opening. The tanks are vented to the outside to maintain atmospheric pressure inside the tank. They may be vented through the filler cap or through a tube extending through the surface of the wing. Fuel tanks also include an overflow drain that may stand alone or be collocated with the fuel tank vent. This allows fuel to expand with increases in temperature without damage to the tank itself. If the tanks have been filled on a hot day, it is not unusual to see fuel coming from the overflow drain.

Fuel gauges

The fuel quantity gauges indicate the amount of fuel measured by a sensing unit in each fuel tank and is displayed in gallons or pounds. Aircraft certification rules only require accuracy in fuel gauges when they read “empty.” Any reading other than “empty” should be verified. Do not depend solely on the accuracy of the fuel quantity gauges. Always visually check the fuel level in each tank during the preflight inspection, and then compare it with the corresponding fuel quantity indication.

If a fuel pump is installed in the fuel system, a fuel pressure gauge is also included. This gauge indicates the pressure in the fuel lines. The normal operating pressure can be found in the AFM/POH, or on the gauge by color coding.

Fuel selectors

The fuel selector valve allows selection of fuel from various tanks. A common type of selector valve contains four positions: LEFT, RIGHT, BOTH, and OFF. Selecting the LEFT or RIGHT position allows fuel to feed only from that tank, while selecting the BOTH position feeds fuel from both tanks. The LEFT or RIGHT position may be used to balance the amount of fuel remaining in each wing tank.

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Figure 16: Fuel selector valve.

Fuel placards will show any limitations on fuel tank usage, such as “level flight only” and/or “both” for landings and takeoffs.

Regardless of the type of fuel selector in use, fuel consumption should be monitored closely to ensure that a tank does not run completely out of fuel. Running a fuel tank dry will not only cause the engine to stop, but running for prolonged periods on one tank causes an unbalanced fuel load between tanks. Running a tank completely dry may allow air to enter the fuel system, which may cause vapor lock. When this situation develops, it may be difficult to restart the engine. On fuel-injected engines, the fuel may become so hot it vaporizes in the fuel line, not allowing fuel to reach the cylinders.

Fuel strainers, sumps, and drains

After the fuel selector valve, the fuel passes through a strainer before it enters the carburetor. This strainer removes moisture and other sediments that might be in the system. Since these contaminants are heavier than aviation fuel, they settle in a sump at the bottom of the strainer assembly. A sump is defined as a low point in a fuel system and/or fuel tank. The fuel system may contain sump, fuel strainer, and fuel tank drains, some of which may be collocated.

The fuel strainer should be drained before each flight.

Fuel samples should be drained and checked visually for water and contaminants. Water in the sump is hazardous because in cold weather the water can freeze and block fuel lines. In warm weather, it can flow into the carburetor and stop the engine. If water is present in the sump, it is likely there is more water in the fuel tanks, and you should continue to drain them until there is no evidence of water. In any event, never take off until you are certain that all water and contaminants have been removed from the engine fuel system.

Because of the variation in fuel systems, you should become thoroughly familiar with the systems that apply to your airplane. Consult the AFM or POH for specific operating procedures.

Fuel grades

Aviation gasoline, or AVGAS, is identified by an octane or performance number (grade), which designates the antiknock value or knock resistance of the fuel mixture in the engine cylinder. The higher the grade of gasoline, the more pressure the fuel can withstand without detonating. Lower grades of fuel are used in lower-compression engines because these fuels ignite at a lower temperature. Higher grades are used in higher-compression engines, because they must ignite at higher temperatures, but not prematurely. If the proper grade of fuel is not available, use the next higher grade as a substitute. Never use a lower grade. This can cause the cylinder head temperature and engine oil temperature to exceed their normal operating range, which may result in detonation.

Several grades of aviation fuel are available. Care must be exercised to ensure that the correct aviation grade is being used for the specific type of engine. The proper fuel grade is stated in the AFM or POH, on placards in the cockpit, and next to the filler caps. Due to its lead content, auto gas should NEVER be used in aircraft engines unless the aircraft has been modified with a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) issued by the Federal Aviation Administration.

The current method to identify aviation gasoline for aircraft with reciprocating engines is by the octane and performance number, along with the abbreviation AVGAS. These aircraft use AVGAS 80, 100, and 100LL. Although AVGAS 100LL performs the same as grade 100, the “LL” indicates it has a low lead content.

Fuel for aircraft with turbine engines is classified as JET A, JET A-1, and JET B. Jet fuel is basically kerosene and has a distinctive kerosene smell.

Since use of the correct fuel is critical, dyes are added to help identify the type and grade of fuel.

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Figure 17: Aviation fuel color-coding system.

In addition to the color of the fuel itself, the color-coding system extends to decals and various airport fuel handling equipment. For example, all aviation gasolines are identified by name, using white letters on a red background. In contrast, turbine fuels are identified by white letters on a black background.

Fuel contamination

Of the accidents attributed to powerplant failure from fuel contamination, most have been traced to:

  • Inadequate preflight inspection by the pilot.
  • Servicing aircraft with improperly filtered fuel from small tanks or drums.
  • Storing aircraft with partially filled fuel tanks.
  • Lack of proper maintenance.

Fuel should be drained from the fuel strainer quick drain and from each fuel tank sump into a transparent container, and then checked for dirt and water. When the fuel strainer is being drained, water in the tank may not appear until all the fuel has been drained from the lines leading to the tank. This indicates that water remains in the tank, and is not forcing the fuel out of the fuel lines leading to the fuel strainer. Therefore, drain enough fuel from the fuel strainer to be certain that fuel is being drained from the tank. The amount will depend on the length of fuel line from the tank to the drain. If water or other contaminants are found in the first sample, drain further samples until no trace appears.

Water may also remain in the fuel tanks after the drainage from the fuel strainer had ceased to show any trace of water. This residual water can be removed only by draining the fuel tank sump drains.

Water is the principal fuel contaminant. Suspended water droplets in the fuel can be identified by a cloudy appearance of the fuel or by the clear separation of water from the colored fuel, which occurs after the water has settled to the bottom of the tank. As a safety measure, the fuel sumps should be drained before every flight during the preflight inspection.

Fuel tanks should be filled after each flight, or at least after the last flight of the day to prevent moisture condensation within the tank. Another way to prevent fuel contamination is to avoid refueling from cans and drums. Refueling from cans or drums may result in fuel contamination.

The use of a funnel and chamois skin when refueling from cans or drums is hazardous under any conditions, and should be discouraged. In remote areas or in emergency situations, there may be no alternative to refueling from sources with inadequate anticontamination systems, and a chamois and funnel may be the only possible means of filtering fuel. However, the use of a chamois will not always ensure decontaminated fuel.

Worn-out chamois will not filter water; neither will a new, clean chamois that is already water-wet or damp.

Most imitation chamois skins will not filter water.

Refueling procedures

Static electricity is formed by the friction of air passing over the surfaces of an airplane in flight and by the flow of fuel through the hose and nozzle during refueling.

Nylon, dacron, or wool clothing is especially prone to accumulate and discharge static electricity from the person to the funnel or nozzle. To guard against the possibility of static electricity igniting fuel fumes, a ground wire should be attached to the aircraft before the fuel cap is removed from the tank. The refueling nozzle then should be grounded to the aircraft before refueling is begun, and should remain grounded throughout the refueling process. When a fuel truck is used, it should be grounded prior to the fuel nozzle contacting the aircraft.

If fueling from drums or cans is necessary, proper bonding and grounding connections are important.

Drums should be placed near grounding posts, and the following sequence of connections observed:

  1. Drum to ground.
  2. Ground to aircraft.
  3. Drum to aircraft.
  4. Nozzle to aircraft before the fuel cap is removed.

When disconnecting, reverse the order.

The passage of fuel through a chamois increases the charge of static electricity and the danger of sparks. The aircraft must be properly grounded and the nozzle, chamois filter, and funnel bonded to the aircraft. If a can is used, it should be connected to either the grounding post or the funnel. Under no circumstances should a plastic bucket or similar nonconductive container be used in this operation.

Jet engine Fuel system:

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Starting system

Most small aircraft use a direct-cranking electric starter system. This system consists of a source of electricity, wiring, switches, and solenoids to operate the starter and a starter motor. Most aircraft have starters that automatically engage and disengage when operated, but some older aircraft have starters that are mechanically engaged by a lever actuated by the pilot.

The starter engages the aircraft flywheel, rotating the engine at a speed that allows the engine to start and maintain operation.

Electrical power for starting is usually supplied by an on-board battery, but can also be supplied by external power through an external power receptacle. When the battery switch is turned on, electricity is supplied to the main power bus through the battery solenoid. Both the starter and the starter switch draw current from the main bus, but the starter will not operate until the starting solenoid is energized by the starter switch being turned to the “start” position. When the starter switch is released from the “start” position, the solenoid removes power from the starter motor. The starter motor is protected from being driven by the engine through a clutch in the starter drive that allows the engine to run faster than the starter motor.

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Figure 18: Typical starting circuit.

When starting an engine, the rules of safety and courtesy should be strictly observed. One of the most important is to make sure there is no one near the propeller. In addition, the wheels should be chocked and the brakes set, to avoid hazards caused by unintentional movement. To avoid damage to the propeller and property, the airplane should be in an area where the propeller will not stir up gravel or dust.

Ignition System: Spark Ignition Engine

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In a spark ignition engine the ignition system provides a spark that ignites the fuel/air mixture in the cylinders and is made up of magnetos, spark plugs, high-tension leads, and the ignition switch. [Figure 6-16]

A magneto uses a permanent magnet to generate an electrical current completely independent of the aircraft’s electrical system. The magneto generates sufficiently high voltage to jump a spark across the spark plug gap in each cylinder. The system begins to fire when the starter is engaged and the crankshaft begins to turn. It continues to operate whenever the crankshaft is rotating.


Most standard certificated aircraft incorporate a dual ignition system with two individual magnetos, separate sets of wires, and spark plugs to increase reliability of the ignition system. Each magneto operates independently to fire one of the two spark plugs in each cylinder. The firing of two spark plugs improves combustion of the fuel/air mixture and results in a slightly higher power output. If one of the magnetos fails, the other is unaffected. The engine will continue to operate normally, although a slight decrease in engine power can be expected. The same is true if one of the two spark plugs in a cylinder fails.
The operation of the magneto is controlled in the flight deck by the ignition switch. The switch has five positions:

  1. OFF
  2. R (right)
  3. L (left)
  4. BOTH
  5. START

With RIGHT or LEFT selected, only the associated magneto is activated. The system operates on both magnetos with BOTH selected.
A malfunctioning ignition system can be identified during the pretakeoff check by observing the decrease in rpm that occurs when the ignition switch is first moved from BOTH to RIGHT, and then from BOTH to LEFT. A small decrease in engine rpm is normal during this check. The permissible decrease is listed in the AFM or POH. If the engine stops running when switched to one magneto or if the rpm drop exceeds the allowable limit, do not fly the aircraft until the problem is corrected. The cause could be fouled plugs, broken or shorted wires between the magneto and the plugs, or improperly timed firing of the plugs. It should be noted that “no drop” in rpm is not normal, and in that instance, the aircraft should not be flown.
Following engine shutdown, turn the ignition switch to the OFF position. Even with the battery and master switches OFF, the engine can fire and turn over if the ignition switch is left ON and the propeller is moved because the magneto requires no outside source of electrical power. Be aware of the potential for serious injury in this situation.
Even with the ignition switch in the OFF position, if the ground wire between the magneto and the ignition switch becomes disconnected or broken, the engine could accidentally start if the propeller is moved with residual fuel in the cylinder. If this occurs, the only way to stop the engine is to move the mixture lever to the idle cutoff position, then have the system checked by a qualified aviation maintenance technician.

Fuel injection systems

In a fuel injection system, the fuel is injected either directly into the cylinders, or just ahead of the intake valve. A fuel injection system is considered to be less susceptible to icing than the carburetor system. Impact icing on the air intake, however, is a possibility in either system. Impact icing occurs when ice forms on the exterior of the airplane, and blocks openings such as the air intake for the injection system.

The air intake for the fuel injection system is similar to that used in the carburetor system, with an alternate air source located within the engine cowling. This source is used if the external air source is obstructed. The alternate air source is usually operated automatically, with a backup manual system that can be used if the automatic feature malfunctions.

A fuel injection system usually incorporates these basic components—an engine-driven fuel pump, a fuel/air control unit, fuel manifold (fuel distributor), discharge nozzles, an auxiliary fuel pump, and fuel pressure/flow indicators.

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Figure 10: Fuel injection system.

The auxiliary fuel pump provides fuel under pressure to the fuel/air control unit for engine starting and/or emergency use. After starting, the engine-driven fuel pump provides fuel under pressure from the fuel tank to the fuel/air control unit. This control unit, which essentially replaces the carburetor, meters fuel based on the mixture control setting, and sends it to the fuel manifold valve at a rate controlled by the throttle. After reaching the fuel manifold valve, the fuel is distributed to the individual fuel discharge nozzles. The discharge nozzles, which are located in each cylinder head, inject the fuel/air mixture directly into each cylinder intake port.

Some of the advantages of fuel injection are:

  • Reduction in evaporative icing.
  • Better fuel flow.
  • Faster throttle response.
  • Precise control of mixture.
  • Better fuel distribution.
  • Easier cold weather starts.

Disadvantages usually include:

  • Difficulty in starting a hot engine.
  • Vapor locks during ground operations on hot days.
  • Problems associated with restarting an engine that quits because of fuel starvation.

LUBRICATION SYSTEM.—The oil lubrication systems of modern gas turbine engines vary in design and plumbing. However, most systems have units that perform similar functions. In a majority of cases, a pressure pump or system furnishes oil to lubricate and cool several parts of the engine. A scavenging system returns the oil to the tank for reuse. Overheating is a problem in gas turbine engines. Overheating is more severe after the engine stops than while it is running. Oil flow, which normally cools the bearings, stops. The heat stored in the turbine wheel now raises the temperature of the bearings much higher than when the engine was running. The oil moves heat away from these bearings to prevent overheating. Most systems include a heat exchanger to cool the oil. Many systems have pressurized sumps and a pressurized oil tank. This equipment ensures a constant head pressure to the pressure lubrication pump to prevent pump cavitation at high altitudes. Oil consumption is relatively low in a gas turbine engine compared to a piston-type engine. Oil consumption in the turbine engine primarily depends

upon the efficiency of the seals. However, oil can be lost through internal leakage, and, in some engines, by malfunctioning of the pressurizing or venting system. Oil sealing is very important in a jet engine. Any wetting of the blades or vanes by oil vapor causes accumulation of dust or dirt. Since oil consumption is so low, oil tanks are made small to decrease weight and storage problems. The main parts of the turbine requiring lubrication and cooling are the main bearings and accessory drive gears. Therefore, lubrication of the gas turbine engine is simple. In some engines the oil operates the servomechanism of fuel controls and controls the position of the variable-area exhaust nozzle vanes. Because each engine bearing gets its oil from a metered or calibrated opening, the lubrication system is known as the calibrated type. With few exceptions, the lubricating system is of the dry sump design. This design carries the bulk of the oil in an airframe or engine-supplied separate tank. In the wet sump system, the oil is carried in the engine itself. All gas turbine engine lubrication systems normally use synthetic oil. Figure 6-18 shows components that usually make up the dry sump oil system of a gas turbine engine.

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