Flight Control System
The architecture of the flight control system, essential for all flight operations, has significantly changed throughout the years. Soon after the first flights, articulated surfaces were introduced for basic control, operated by the pilot through a system of cables and pulleys. This technique survived for decades and is now still used for small airplanes.
The introduction of larger airplanes and the increase of flight envelopes made the muscular effort of the pilot, in many conditions, not sufficient to contrast the aerodynamic hinge moments consequent to the surface deflection; the first solution to this problem was the introduction of aerodynamic balances and tabs, but further grow of the aircraft sizes and flight enveops brought to the need of powered systems to control the articulated aerodynamic surfaces.
Nowadays two great categories of flight control systems can be found: a full mechanical control on gliders and small general aviation, and a powered, or servo-assisted, control on large or combat aircraft.
One of the great additional effects after the introduction of servomechanisms is the possibility of using active control technology, working directly on the flight control actuators, for a series of benefits:
• compensation for deficiencies in the aerodynamics of the basic airframe;
• stabilisation and control of unstable airplanes, that have commonly higher performances;
• flight at high angles of attack;
• automatic stall and spinning protection;
• gust alleviation.
Fig. 6.1 – Flight control surfaces on airliner
A further evolution of the servo-assisted control is the fly-by-wire technique, based on signal processing of the pilot’s demand before conversion into actuator control.
The number and type of aerodynamic surfaces to be controlled changes with aircraft category. Fig. 6.1 shows the classic layout for a conventional airliner. Aircraft have a number of different control surfaces:
those indicated in red form the primary flight control, i.e. pitch, roll and yaw control, basically obtained by deflection of elevators, ailerons and rudder (and combinations of them); those indicated in blue form the secondary flight control: high-lift and lift-dump devices, airbrakes, tail trimming, etc.
Modern aircraft have often particular configurations, typically as follows:
• elevons on delta wings, for pitch and roll control, if there is no horizontal tail;
• flaperons, or trailing edge flaps-ailerons extended along the entire span:
• tailerons, or stabillisers-ailerons (independently controlled);
• swing wings, with an articulation that allows sweep angle variation;
• canards, with additional pitch control and stabilization
Primary flight control capability is essential for safety, and this aspect is dramatically emphasized in the modern unstable (military) airplanes, which could be not controlled without the continued operation of the primary flight control surfaces. For this reason the actuation system in charge of primary control has a high redundancy and reliability, and is capable of operating close to full performance after one or more failures.
Secondary actuation system failure can only introduce flight restriction, like a flapless landing or reduction in the max angle of attack; therefore it is not necessary to ensure full operation after failures.
Conventional Systems/Direct mechanical control
As mentioned in the introduction, the linkage from cabin to control surface can be fully mechanical if the aircraft size and its flight envelop allow; in this case the hinge moment generated by the surface deflection is low enough to be easily contrasted by the muscular effort of the pilot.
Fig 6.2 – Push-pull rod system for elevator control
Two types of mechanical systems are used: push-pull rods and cable-pulley.
In the first case a sequence of rods link the control surface to the cabin input. Bell-crank levers are used to change the direction of the rod routings: fig. 6.2 sketches the push-pull control rod system between the elevator and the cabin control column; the bell-crank lever is here necessary to alter the direction of the transmission and to obtain the conventional coupling between stick movement and elevator deflection (column fwd = down deflection of surface and pitch down control).
From this simplified description the main requirements of a push-pull rod system are clear. First of all the linkage must be stiff, to avoid any unwanted deflection during flight and due to fuselage elasticity. Second, axial instability during compression must be excluded; the instability load P for a rod is given by:
E = Young modulus;
I = cross-section moment of inertia;
λ = reference length.
The reference length is linked to the real length of the rod, meaning that to increase the instability load the length must be decreased, or the rods must be frequently constrained by slide guides, or the routing must be interrupted with bell-cranks.
Finally a modal analysis of the system layout is sometimes necessary, because vibrations
Fig 6.3 – Cables and pulleys system for elevator control
of the rods can introduce oscillating deflections of the surface; this problem is particularly important on helicopters, because vibrations generated by the main rotor can induce a dramatic resonance of the flight control rods.
The same operation described before can be done by a cable-pulley system, where couples of cables are used in place of the rods. In this case pulleys are used to alter the direction of the lines, equipped with idlers to reduce any slack due to structure elasticity, cable strands relaxation or thermal expansion. Often the cable-pulley solution is preferred, because is more flexible and allows reaching more remote areas of the airplane. An example is sketched in fig. 6.3, where the cabin column is linked via a rod to a quadrant, which the cables are connected to.
Fully powered Flight Controls
To actuate the control Surface the pilot has to give full effort. This is very tough to actuate the control surfaces through simple mechanical linkages. One can feel the equal toughness when raising the hand perpendicular to the airflow on riding a motorbike.
In this type of flight control system we will have
To transmit the power
To connect the cable
To adjust the Cable length
To guide the Cable
To guide the in radial direction
Push pull rod
To go for and aft as per requirement
To make orders for the remaining circuit
The most basic flight control system designs are mechanical and date back to early aircraft. They operate with a collection of mechanical parts such as rods, cables, pulleys, and sometimes chains to transmit the forces of the flight deck controls to the control surfaces. Mechanical flight control systems are still used today in small general and sport category aircraft where the aerodynamic forces are not excessive. When the pilot pushes the control stick forward/backward the cable is getting tensed through the linkages and it causes the Control surface to move respectively.
Power actuated systems
When the pilot’s action is not directly sufficient for a the control, the main option is a powered system that assists the pilot.
A few control surfaces on board are operated by electrical motors: as already discussed in a previous chapter, the hydraulic system has demonstrated to be a more suitable solution for actuation in terms of reliability, safety, weight per unit power and flexibility, with respect to the electrical system, then becoming the common tendency on most modern airplanes: the pilot, via the cabin components, sends a signal, or demand, to a valve that opens ports through which high pressure hydraulic fluid flows and operates one or more actuators.
The valve, that is located near the actuators, can be signalled in two different ways: mechanically or electrically; mechanical signalling is obtained by push-pull rods, or more commonly by cables and pulleys; electrical signalling is a solution of more modern and sophisticated vehicles and will be later on discussed.
The basic principle of the hydraulic control is simple, but two aspects must be noticed when a powered control is introduced:
1. the system must control the surface in a proportional way, i.e. the surface response (deflection) must be function to the pilot’s demand (stick deflection, for instance);
2. the pilot that with little effort acts on a control valve must have a feedback on the manoeuvre intensity.
The first problem is solved by using (hydraulic) servo-mechanisms, where the components are linked in such a way to introduce an actuator stroke proportional to the pilot’s demand; many examples can be made, two of them are sketched in fig. 6.4, the second one including also the hydraulic circuit necessary for a correct operation.
In both cases the control valve housing is solid with the cylinder and the cabin column
Fig. 6.4 – Classic hydraulic servomechanisms
has a mechanical linkage to drive the valve spool.
In the first case, the cylinder is hinged to the aircraft and, due to valve spool displacement and ports opening, the piston is moved in one direction or the other; the piston rod is also linked to the valve spool stick, in such a way that the piston movement brings the spool back towards its neutral position; when this is reached, the actuator stops, then obtaining a deflection that is proportional to the demand.
In the second case the piston is constrained to the aircraft; the cabin column controls the valve spool stick; this will result in a movement of the cylinder, and this brings the valve housing again towards the valve neutral position, then resulting in a stroke proportional to the pilot’s demand. The hydraulic circuit also includes an emergency valve on the delivery segment to the control valve; if the delivery pressure drops, due for instance to a pump or engine failure, the emergency valve switches to the other position and links all the control valve inlets to the tank; this operation hydraulically unlocks the system, allowing the pilot for manual actuation of the cylinder.
It is clear now that the pilot, in normal hydraulic operating conditions, is requested for a very low effort, necessary to contrast the mechanical frictions of the linkage and the movement of the control valve: the pilot is then no more aware of the load condition being imposed to the aircraft.
For this reason an artificial feel is introduced in powered systems, acting directly on the cabin control stick or pedals. The simplest solution is a spring system, then responding to the pilot’s demand with a force proportional to the stick deflection; this solution has of course the limit to be not sensitive to the actual flight conditions. A more sophisticated artificial feel is the so-called Q feel. This system receives data from the pitot-static probes, reading the dynamic pressure, or the difference between total (pt) and static (ps) pressure, that is proportional to the aircraft speed v through the air density ρ:
This signal is used to modulate a hydraulic cylinder that increases the stiffness in the artificial feel system, in such a way that the pilot is given a contrast force in the pedals or stick that is also proportional to the aircraft speed.
Pneumatic control system
Pneumatic is a branch of technology, which deals with the study and application of pressurized gas to effect mechanical motion.
Pneumatic systems are extensively used in industry, where factories are commonly plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. This is because a centrally located and electrically powered compressor that powers cylinders and other pneumatic devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a cheaper, safer, more flexible, and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors and actuators.
Pneumatic also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.
Pump that compresses air, raising air pressure to above ambient pressure for use in pneumatic systems.
One-way valve – allows pressurized air to enter the pneumatic system, but prevents backflow of air toward the Compressor when Compressor is stopped (prevent loss of pressure.
· Stores compressed air,
· Prevents surges in pressure
· Prevents constant Compressor operation (“duty cycles” of Compressor)
Directional Valve: (Selector valve)
ü Controls pressurized air flow from Accumulator (source to user equipment via selected port
ü Some valves are one way – shut tight
ü Some valves are two way, allowing free exhaust from the port not selected
ü valves can be actuated manually or electrically.
ü Converts energy stored in compressed air into mechanical motion
ü Example is a linear piston (piston limited to moving in two opposing directions)
ü Other examples are alternate tools including: rotary actuators, air tools, expanding bladders, etc
Pneumatic uses in Aircraft
- Powers engine Suction System for Heading indicators and Attitude indicators.
- Actuates Landing Gear (some aircraft)
- Emergency Brakes (some aircraft)
- Cabin Pressure (for pressurized aircraft)
In the 70’s the fly-by-wire architecture was developed, starting as an analogue technique and later on, in most cases, transformed into digital. It was first developed for military aviation, where it is now a common solution; the supersonic Concorde can be considered a first and isolated civil aircraft equipped with a (analogue) fly-by-wire system, but in the 80’s the digital technique was imported from military into civil aviation by Airbus, first with the A320, then followed by A319, A321, A330, A340, Boeing 777 and A380 (scheduled for 2005).
This architecture is based on computer signal processing and is schematically shown in fig. 6.5: the pilot’s demand is first of all transduced into electrical signal in the cabin and sent to a group of independent computers (Airbus architecture substitute the cabin control column with a side stick); the computers sample also data concerning the flight conditions and servo-valves and actuators positions; the pilot’s demand is then processed and sent to the actuator, properly tailored to the actual flight status.
The flight data used by the system mainly depend on the aircraft category; in general the following data are sampled and processed:
• pitch, roll, yaw rate and linear accelerations
angle of attack and sideslip;
• airspeed/mach number, pressure altitude and radio altimeter indications;
• stick and pedal demands;
• other cabin commands such as landing gear condition, thrust lever position, etc.
The full system has high redundancy to restore the level of reliability of a mechanical or hydraulic system, in the form of multiple (triplex or quadruplex) parallel and independent lanes to generate and transmit the signals, and independent computers that process them; in many cases both hardware and software are different, to make the generation of a common error extremely remote, increase fault tolerance and isolation; in some cases the multiplexing of the digital computing and signal transmission is supported with an analogue or mechanical back-up system, to achieve adequate system reliability.
Fig. 6.5 – Fly-by-wire system
between military and civil aircraft; some of the most important benefits are as follows:
• flight envelope protection (the computers will reject and tune pilot’s demands that might exceed the airframe load factors);
• increase of stability and handling qualities across the full flight envelope, including the possibility of flying unstable vehicles;
• turbulence suppression and consequent decrease of fatigue loads and increase of passenger comfort;
• use of thrust vectoring to augment or replace lift aerodynamic control, then extending the aircraft flight envelope;
• drag reduction by an optimised trim setting;
• higher stability during release of tanks and weapons;
• easier interfacing to auto-pilot and other automatic flight control systems;
• weight reduction (mechanical linkages are substituted by wirings);
• maintenance reduction;
• reduction of airlines’ pilot training costs (flight handling becomes very similar in an whole aircraft family).
the flight mode: ground, take-off, flight and flare. Transition between modes is smooth and the pilot is not affected in its ability to control the aircraft: in ground mode the pilot has control on the nose wheel steering as a function of speed, after lift-off the envelope protection is gradually introduced and in flight mode the aircraft is fully protected by exceeding the maximum negative and positive load factors (with and without high lift devices extracted), angle of attack, stall, airspeed/Mach number, pitch attitude, roll rate, bank angle etc; finally, when the aircraft approaches to ground the control is gradually switched to flare mode, where automatic trim is deactivated and modified flight laws are used for pitch control.
The control software is one of the most critical aspects of fly-by-wire. It is developed in accordance to very strict rules, taking into account the flight control laws, and extensive testing is performed to reduce the probability of error. The risk of aircraft loss due to flight control failure is 2×10-6 per flight hour for a sophisticated military airplane, that anyway has the ejection seat as ultimate solution; the risk is reduced to 10-9 per flight hour for a civil airplane, were occupants cannot evacuate the airplane during flight.
Fig. 6.6 shows, as example, the fly-by-wire layout for the Airbus 340. Three groups of personal computers are used on board: three for primary control (FCPC), two for secondary control (FCSC) and two for high lift devices control (SFCC). The primary and secondary computers are based on different hardware; computers belonging to the same group have different software.
Two additional personal computers are used to store flight data.
Fig. 6.6 – A340 fly-by-wire layout, including hydraulic system indications
In the drawing the computer group and hydraulic system that control each surface are indicated (there are three independent hydraulic systems on the A340, commonly indicated as Blue, Yellow and Green). The leading edge flaps are linked together, and so are the trailing edge flaps, and then they are controlled by hydraulic units in the fuselage.
The drawing shows a considerable redundancy of the flight control system: the inboard and outboard ailerons, elevators and rudder are controlled by both the primary and secondary computers and operated by the three hydraulic sub-systems; the high lift devices are controlled by their specific computers and operated by the three hydraulic systems (Blue and Green for the leading edge,Yellow and Green for the trailing edge); the vertical stabiliser, having a secondary role, is controlled only by the secondary computers and operated by two hydraulic sub-systems. Thanks to this layout, first of all, in case of double hydraulic sub-system fault, the aircraft can be basically controlled with one hydraulic sub-system. Moreover, in case of total power black-out, the pilot can control the rudder and elevators by a mechanical back-up system, since the capability of this aircraft to land safely has been demonstrated with only limited pitch and yaw control.
Fly-by-wire architecture is inevitable for some aircraft categories: fig. 6.7 shows a typically unstable aircraft and a tilt rotor aircraft.
Fig. 6.7 – Need of fly-y-wire architecture for unstable (B-2) and thrust vectoring (V-22) airplanes
Auto pilot System
An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. An autopilot can refer specifically to aircraft, self-steering gear for boats, or auto guidance of space craft and missiles. The autopilot of an aircraft is sometimes referred to as “George”, after one of the key contributors to its development.
Today, autopilots are sophisticated systems that perform the same duties as a highly trained pilot. In fact, for some in-flight routines and procedures, autopilots are even better than a pair of human hands. They don’t just make flights smoother -they make them safer and more efficient. We’ll look at how autopilots work by examining their main components, how they work together — and what happens if they fail.
Autopilots and Avionics
In the world of aircraft, the autopilot is more accurately described as the automatic flight control system (AFCS). An AFCS is part of an aircraft’s avionics – the electronic systems, equipment and devices used to control key systems of the plane and its flight. In addition to flight control systems, avionics include electronics for communications, navigation, collision avoidance and weather. The original use of an AFCS was to provide pilot relief during tedious stages of flight, such as high-altitude cruising. Advanced autopilots can do much more, carrying out even highly precise maneuvers, such as landing an aircraft in conditions of zero visibility.
Although there is great diversity in autopilot systems, most can be classified according to the number of parts, or surfaces, they control. To understand this discussion, it helps to be familiar with the three basic control surfaces that affect an airplane’s attitude.
Autopilots can control any or all of these surfaces. A single-axis autopilot manages just one set of controls, usually the ailerons. This simple type of autopilot is known as a “wing leveler” because, by controlling roll, it keeps the aircraft wings on an even keel.
A two-axis autopilot manages elevators and ailerons. Finally, a three-axis autopilot manages all three basic control systems: ailerons, elevators and rudder.
The invention of autopilot
Famous inventor and engineer Elmer Sperry patented the gyrocompass in 1908, but it was his son, Lawrence Burst Sperry, who first flight-tested such a device in an aircraft. The younger Sperry’s autopilot used four gyroscopes to stabilize the airplane and led to many flying firsts, including the first night flight in the history of aviation. In 1932, the Sperry Gyroscope Company developed the automatic pilot that Wiley Post would use in his first solo flight around the world.
The heart of a modern automatic flight control system is a computer with several high-speed processors. To gather the intelligence required to control the plane, the processors communicate with sensors located on the major control surfaces. They can also collect data from other airplane systems and equipment, including gyroscopes, accelerometers, altimeters, compasses and airspeed indicators.
The processors in the AFCS then take the input data and, using complex calculations, compare it to a set of control modes. A control mode is a setting entered by the pilot that defines a specific detail of the flight. For example, there is a control mode that defines how an aircraft’s altitude will be maintained. There are also control modes that maintain airspeed, heading and flight path.
These calculations determine if the plane is obeying the commands set up in the control modes. The processors then send signals to various servomechanism units. A servomechanism, or servo for short, is a device that provides mechanical control at a distance. One servo exists for each control surface included in the autopilot system. The servos take the computer’s instructions and use motors or hydraulics to move the craft’s control surfaces, making sure the plane maintains its proper course and attitude.
The above illustration shows how the basic elements of an autopilot system are related. For simplicity, only one control surface — the rudder — is shown, although each control surface would have a similar arrangement. Notice that the basic schematic of an autopilot looks like a loop, with sensors sending data to the autopilot computer, which processes the information and transmits signals to the servo, which moves the control surface, which changes the attitude of the plane, which creates a new data set in the sensors, which starts the whole process again. This type of feedback loop is central to the operation of autopilot systems.
Autopilot Control Systems
An autopilot is an example of a control system. Control systems apply an action based on a measurement and almost always have an impact on the value they are measuring. A classic example of a control system is the negative feedback loop that controls the thermostat in your home. Such a loop works like this:
1. Its summertime and a homeowner set his thermostat to a desired room temperature say 78°F.
2. The thermostat measures the air temperature and compares it to the preset value.
3. Over time, the hot air outside the house will elevate the temperature inside the house. When the temperature inside exceeds 78°F, the thermostat sends a signal to the air conditioning unit.
4. The air conditioning unit clicks on and cools the room.
5. When the temperature in the room returns to 78°F, another signal is sent to the air conditioner, which shuts off.
It’s called a negative feedback loop because the result of a certain action (the air conditioning unit clicking on) inhibits further performance of that action. All negative feedback loops require a receptor, a control center and an effector. In the example above, the receptor is the thermometer that measures air temperature. The control center is the processor inside the thermostat. And the effector is the air conditioning unit.
Automated flight control systems work the same way. Let’s consider the example of a pilot who has activated a single-axis autopilot — the so-called wing leveler we mentioned earlier.
1. The pilot sets a control mode to maintain the wings in a level position.
2. However, even in the smoothest air, a wing will eventually dip.
3. Position sensors on the wing detect this deflection and send a signal to the autopilot computer.
4. The autopilot computer processes the input data and determines that the wings are no longer level.
5. The autopilot computer sends a signal to the servos that control the aircraft’s ailerons. The signal is a very specific command telling the servo to make a precise adjustment.
a) Each servo has a small electric motor fitted with a slip clutch that, through a bridle cable, grips the aileron cable. When the cable moves, the control surfaces move accordingly.
b) As the ailerons are adjusted based on the input data, the wings move back toward level.
c) The autopilot computer removes the command when the position sensor on the wing detects that the wings are once again level.
d) The servos cease to apply pressure on the aileron cables.
This loop, shown above in the block diagram, works continuously, many times a second, much more quickly and smoothly than a human pilot could. Two- and three-axis autopilots obey the same principles, employing multiple processors that control multiple surfaces. Some airplanes even have auto thrust computers to control engine thrust. Autopilot and auto thrust systems can work together to perform very complex maneuvers.
Autopilots can and do fail. A common problem is some kind of servo failure, either because of a bad motor or a bad connection. A position sensor can also fail, resulting in a loss of input data to the autopilot computer. Fortunately, autopilots for manned aircraft are designed as a failsafe — that is, no failure in the automatic pilot can prevent effective employment of manual override. To override the autopilot, a crew member simply has to disengage the system, either by flipping a power switch or, if that doesn’t work, by pulling the autopilot circuit breaker.
Some airplane crashes have been blamed on situations where pilots have failed to disengage the automatic flight control system. The pilots end up fighting the settings that the autopilot is administering; unable to figure out why the plane won’t do what they’re asking it to do. This is why flight instruction programs stress practicing for just such a scenario. Pilots must know how to use every feature of an AFCS, but they must also know how to turn it off and fly without it. They also have to adhere to a rigorous maintenance schedule to make sure all sensors and servos are in good working order. Any adjustments or fixes in key systems may require that the autopilot be tweaked. For example, a change made to gyro instruments will require realignment of the settings in the autopilot’s computer.
Modern Autopilot Systems
Many modern autopilots can receive data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver installed on the aircraft. A GPS receiver can determine airplane’s position in space by calculating its distance from three or more satellites in the GPS network. Armed with such positioning information, an autopilot can do more than keep a plane straight and level — it can execute a flight plan.
Most commercial jets have had such capabilities for a while, but even smaller planes are incorporating sophisticated autopilot systems. New Cessna 182s and 206s are leaving the factory with the Garmin G1000 integrated cockpit, which includes a digital electronic autopilot combined with a flight director. The Garmin G1000 delivers essentially all the capabilities and modes of a jet avionics system, bringing true automatic flight control to a new generation of general aviation planes.Wiley Post could have only dreamed of such technology back in 1933.