The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another, and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer.

**Modes of Heat Transfer:**

We start this chapter with a review of the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics that form the framework for heat transfer. We first present the relation of heat to other forms of energy and review the first law of thermodynamics. We then present the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are conduction, convection, and radiation, and discuss thermal conductivity.

**Conduction** is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent, less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles.

**Convection** is the mode of heat transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion.

**Radiation** is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.

**ONE-DIMENSIONAL STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION**

In this section we will develop the finite difference formulation of heat conduction in a plane wall using the energy balance approach and discuss how to solve the resulting equations. The energy balance method is based on subdividing the medium into a sufficient number of volume elements and then applying an energy balance on each element. This is done by first selecting the nodal points (or nodes) at which the temperatures are to be determined and then forming elements (or control volumes) over the nodes by drawing lines through the midpoints between the nodes. This way, the interior nodes remain at the middle of the elements, and the properties at the node such as the temperature and the rate of heat generation represent the average properties of the element. Sometimes it is convenient to think of temperature as varying linearly between the nodes, especially when expressing heat conduction between the elements using Fourier’s law.

**2.3 Boundary and Initial Conditions **

The objective of deriving the heat diffusion equation is to determine the temperature distribution within the conducting body.

We have set up a differential equation, with T as the dependent variable. The solution will give us T(x,y,z). Solution depends on boundary conditions (BC) and initial conditions (IC).

How many BC’s and IC’s ?

– Heat equation is second order in spatial coordinate. Hence, 2 BC’s needed for each coordinate.

* 1D problem: 2 BC in x-direction

* 2D problem: 2 BC in x-direction, 2 in y-direction

* 3D problem: 2 in x-dir., 2 in y-dir., and 2 in z-dir.

– Heat equation is first order in time. Hence one IC needed.

The following assumptions are made with regard to the above thermal resistance model:

1) Face between B and C is insulated.

2) Uniform temperature at any face normal to X.

**1-D radial conduction through a cylinder: **

One frequently encountered problem is that of heat flow through the walls of a pipe or through the insulation placed around a pipe. Consider the cylinder shown. The pipe is either insulated on the ends or is of sufficient length, L, that heat losses through the ends is negligible. Assume no heat sources within the wall of the tube. If T1>T2, heat will flow outward, radially, from the inside radius, R1, to the outside radius, R2. The process will be described by the Fourier Law.

**LUMPED SYSTEM ANALYSIS**

In heat transfer analysis, some bodies are observed to behave like a “lump” whose interior temperature remains essentially uniform at all times during a heat transfer process. The temperature of such bodies can be taken to be a function of time only, T(t). Heat transfer analysis that utilizes this idealization is known as **lumped system analysis, **which provides great simplification in certain classes of heat transfer problems without much sacrifice from accuracy.

Consider a small hot copper ball coming out of an oven (Fig. 4–1). Measurements indicate that the temperature of the copper ball changes with time, but it does not change much with position at any given time. Thus the temperature of the ball remains uniform at all times, and we can talk about the temperature of the ball with no reference to a specific location. Now let us go to the other extreme and consider a large roast in an oven. If you have done any roasting, you must have noticed that the temperature distribution within the roast is not even close to being uniform. You can easily verify this by taking the roast out before it is completely done and cutting it in half. You will see that the outer parts of the roast are well done while the center part is barely warm. Thus, lumped system analysis is not applicable in this case. Before presenting a criterion about applicability of lumped system analysis, we develop the formulation associated with it.

**TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN SEMI-INFINITE SOLIDS**

A semi-infinite solid is an idealized body that has a single plane surface and extends to infinity in all directions, as shown in Fig. 4–22. This idealized body is used to indicate that the temperature change in the part of the body in which we are interested (the region close to the surface) is due to the thermal conditions on a single surface. The earth, for example, can be considered to be a semi-infinite medium in determining the variation of temperature near its surface. Also, a thick wall can be modelled as a semi-infinite medium if all we are interested in is the variation of temperature in the region near one of the surfaces, and the other surface is too far to have any impact on the region of interest during the time of observation.

Consider a semi-infinite solid that is at a uniform temperature Ti. At time t _ 0, the surface of the solid at x _ 0 is exposed to convection by a fluid at a constant temperature T_, with a heat transfer coefficient h. This problem can be formulated as a partial differential equation, which can be solved analytically for the transient temperature distribution T(x, t). The solution obtained is presented in Fig. 4–23 graphically for the non dimensionalzed temperature defined as

The proper forms of the product solutions for some other geometries are given in Table 4–4. It is important to note that the x-coordinate is measured from the surface in a semi-infinite solid, and from the midplane in a plane wall. The radial distance r is always measured from the centreline.

Note that the solution of a two-dimensional problem involves the product of two one-dimensional solutions, whereas the solution of a three-dimensional problem involves the product of three one-dimensional solutions.A modified form of the product solution can also be used to determine the total transient heat transfer to or from a multidimensional geometry by using the one-dimensional values, as shown by L. S. Langston in 1982.

**TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION**

The explicit and implicit methods have their advantages and disadvantages, and one method is not necessarily better than the other one. Next you will see that the explicit method is easy to implement but imposes a limit on the allowable time step to avoid instabilities in the solution, and the implicit method requires the nodal temperatures to be solved simultaneously for each time step but imposes no limit on the magnitude of the time step. We will limit the discussion to one- and two-dimensional cases to keep the complexities at a manageable level, but the analysis can readily be extended to three-dimensional cases and other coordinate systems.